Dump the Department of Education

Does anyone know what the Department of Education does? When & why it was created? Good questions, all. The peanut farmer, President Carter in 1979, created its current configuration. Just like every other government program, it would solve all of our societal woes. Let’s see how they’ve done. In the seventies our high school graduation rate was about 73%. After spending hundreds of billions of our dollars that percentage has surged to…73%. So if it hasn’t had an effect on graduation rate why was it created in the first place? Another great question. Boy, I ask a lot of great questions.

Let’s jump in the Wayback Machine. Buckle up Sherman. Hit the switch Mr. Peabody.

The Department of Education had begun in 1867 as the Bureau of Education. It was born of a disingenuous bill offered by James Garfield (before he was President). It was extolled & elaborated upon by a Minnesota congressman named Ignatius Donnelly during a floor debate in 1866. Their argument for a centralized department was basically that the post civil war southern states were incapable of educating their own children. They were, he claimed, too ignorant & illiterate. He went on to explain that this problem would threaten the whole republic. In stepped a voice of reason by the name of Andrew J. Rogers. He was a democrat from New Jersey. Never thought I’d say that. Combine the term, voice of reason, with democrat from New Jersey. Funny how things change. Anywho, he observed that it was unheard of to establish a centralized bureau by which children of the various states should be educated. He correctly stated there was no Constitutional authority (like virtually everything the government does) to enable the Congress to interfere with the education of children of the different states in any manner, directly or indirectly. Unfortunately, the department was created anyway and it was the beginning of the end of proper education in America.

It’s taken a long time, but like every government department or program, it just kept getting larger, more expensive, more onerous & intrusive.

Now the Department of Education has at least 5,000 employees (small by Federal standards). The average salary is over $100,000 per year. The national average pay of a teacher is roughly half that. It has a minimum of 15 departments or offices under its control. The annual budget is 56 billion dollars plus an additional 51 billion in porkulus money. A shining example of one of the departments is the Office of Bilingual & Minority Language Affairs. Huh?! What the blank is a minority language? Ebonics maybe? This is still America, right? Aren’t we still supposed to at least pretend to promote the speaking of English? Oh, here’s a good one. There’s an office in charge of talking to other offices. How could we educate our children without the Dept. of Ed.?

Now for the what do they do. I’m sure they do plenty. I’m also sure it’s plenty useless. Bottom line is they confiscate our money, siphon some of it off & send it back to us as long as we do & act exactly as they demand. Just as are most things at the Federal level, they are the drug dealers & the states are the crack addicts. Most states are so desperate for cash, they’ll do anything for a fix. They play right into the hands of the despots. We at the state level should be dialing back our spending so we may tell the feds to take their crack & peddle it somewhere else.

My Experience With Curtin Department of Education

My name is Albino D’souza and I was a student of Edith Cowan University

I secured admission at ECU for the above course after my termination in the same course from Curtin University of Technology in January 2006.This article is to bring to readers attention some very serious concerns about my teaching practicum Unit ED 543 and particularly the conduct of my supervisors from Curtin namely Mr Robert Dixon and his wife Mrs Kathryn Dixon working at the Education department at Curtin. They have demonstrated gross misconduct, lack of professionalism and concern for me as a full fee paying International student studying at Curtin for acquiring a teaching qualification.

In order to acquire a teaching qualification from Curtin it is necessary to complete 175 credits of theory units and 25 credits in two teaching practicum in your major and minor learning area. I had finished all my theory units with considerable success but have had a tough time complete my practicum units despite having ten years of successful teaching experience in my home country.

In November 2004 I did my first field experience practicum at Wanneroo Senior High School as a part of my Grad Dip in Secondary Education. At that time my supervisor was Mr Robert Dixon. During my prac I did make some serious mistakes in my work. I must state that though my major was in SOSE (Society and Environment) my supervisor Mr Robert Dixon came to evaluate two of my Music lessons in that school. Towards the end of the prac i.e. on the last day he did come to see one of my SOSE lessons and failed me on grounds of incompetence and my lack of practice in my major learning area.

The first flaw was I feel in the supervisor Mr Robert Dixon himself coming to evaluate my Music lessons knowing fully well that I have to accomplish a major in SOSE. I did ask him prior to the prac whether he would want to see me teaching Music and he agreed to the preposition. After observing the first Music lesson he expressed a desire to see another Music lesson after incorporating some suggestions he kindly consented to offer. He should have put his foot down in the first place and should have said that he was not interested in watching me teach Music when he knew very well I had a major in SOSE (Society and Environment) and Music was not even my minor. This lapse on the supervisor’s part should be noted. When I had a debriefing session after the first prac with my supervisor in his office Mr Robert Dixon told me very sarcastically that it was very uncommon for International students from Asian countries to Australia and aspire for teaching positions. It was something not encouraged. He also mockingly said that I could complain about him if I was upset with his conduct.At that time however since even the school was not too happy with my performance in SOSE I did not see any chances of an appeal being successful. Hence I made no appeal at that time hoping that I could do better in future.

I had to repeat the prac and pay the full fees for the same $975. My next practicum was at Kent Street senior High School. The supervisor send by Curtin this time was none other than Mrs Kathryn Dixon the wife of Mr Robert Dixon my first supervisor.

The reports prepared by the School and the Supervisor this time where interestingly dichotomous. The school adjudicated me as competent and suggested that I would be an asset to the teaching fraternity while the Supervisor thought other wise. This time however I not only excelled in teaching in my major and minor teaching areas namely SOSE and English but also did exceptionally well in Music (which I have been teaching for the last ten years and English literature). However the supervisor Mrs Dixon (legally married partner of the earlier supervisor Robert Dixon) was nevertheless not impressed with my performance despite receiving several emails from school staff members about my performance.

I decided this time I was not going to take things lying down and would have to act to see that justice was done. I did appeal my results, went to grievance officers and the student guild at Curtin and wrote endless letters trying desperately to expose the commented bias of Mrs Dixon. However the department refused to consider my alligations of collusion between the two supervisors and said it was incorrect and unwarranted which I think is highly unusual .

There are several aspects over looked by the Education department at Curtin in not upholding my appeal. I shall elaborate on each of them.

The first point of concern is the breach of confidentiality by Mrs Dixon who informed Kent street schoolteachers that I was undertaking a repeat prac, which is something very unethical, and rather disturbing. The Education department and the Dean Mr Graham Dellar have not made any attempt to uncover the truth in this respect despite my countless pleas.
It is given that Ms Dixon came to observe my SOSE lesson on the 15th of September 2005.After that, she had a discussion with the school staff. Later that very morning my Co operating Teacher Mr. Garry Shepherd came up to me and asked me a question which scared the living day lights out of me. He inquired “Albino how many pracs have you done before?”

I didn’t know how to answer that question. When I was first assigned Kent street school My course Co-ordinater Mr. Richard Courtney advised me that on no grounds was I to tell Kent street school that I was repeating my first practicum .He said that any kind of adverse prior knowledge negatively conditions the school and makes them biased towards the student especially if the school knows that the student has failed an earlier practicum. He also reiterated that no one in the department had told the school about my eventful past and that I was to undertake this practicum as if I was undertaking it for the very first time. In accordance to instructions I told the school that I had finished all theory components and had only practicum to complete and was undertaking the same as I had missed practicum due to personal reasons.

All said and done I was really shocked when my co-operating teacher asked me that question. It was then that I gathered that the supervisor Mrs. Dixon had disclosed the fact that I was undertaking a repeat practicum to the Staff at Kent Street. The timing was just right. The supervisor had made her visit to the school that morning. The staff at Kent Street is certainly not psychic to gather that I was not undertaking a repeat practicum, nor would they just get a dream about it. The Dean of education still insists that Mrs. Dixon did not tell Kent Street School that I was undertaking a repeat practicum. How then did they come to know? I strongly feel however that Mrs. Dixon who came with her own self fulfilling prophesy tried to influence the school that I was just a failure and I ought to stay that way. Her comments in her report hint the same in very subtle overtures.

In spite of the above occurrence the dean of Education still rules out the possibility of there being a collusion between the husband /wife team of examiners who operate from the same Building at Curtin which I feel is like trying to lead everyone up the garden path.
In the first place by sending a husband wife combination of supervisors to access an international student who not only stands out because of his colour and accent but also qualifications in various diverse fields the university is not giving any one an impression of fairness. What greater collusion can you expect more than a conjugal union? It is really wishful thinking not to expect any kind of collusion between two adults who literally share the same bed. Given the fact that I am just one of the very few International students studying at the dept of Education it would be just incredible?

Another interesting fact about my unceremonious Kent Street Practicum cannot be over looked. My Kent Street Prac was over on the 23rd of September 2005.On that day the 23rd of September I signed the school Practicum report in the presence of my co operating teachers and was very happy that the practicum had come to a conclusion and the school had given me a pass grade. I had no contact with Mrs. Dixon at that time since she had given me no oral feedback or debriefing after observing my second lesson which is very strange as every supervisor does tend to debrief a practicum student after observing a lesson according to my experiences of earlier supervisors and subsequent supervisors at Edith Cowan university. In case the student is busy on that day supervisors usually make an appointment to personally talk to the student on the next day or sometime during the practicum in order to give the student verbal feedback and seek clarifications on certain things observed in the classroom which might have been misunderstood.

At Edith Cowan university I have supervisors not only calling me on my cell phone but also sending me email messages on week day evenings during the practicum. By doing so supervisors display their concern for their students especially during the stressful periods of school practicum’s and endeavor to work collaboratively with the student to achieve success. I have enclosed emails from my subsequent supervisors to demonstrate the same. However Mrs. Dixon made no such contact and it is evident from the conflicting reports that she did not make any reasonable attempts to contact the School or me in the last week to check on my progress. In fact, to make matters worse any positive reports from staff members of the school send to the supervisor Mrs. Dixon by email were coldly disregarded as frivolous.

Although Mrs. Dixon coldly told me that she was happier with the second lesson she said she would speak to the co-operating teachers after handing out to me her voluminous written comments with no indication of whether I had passed or failed. I assumed that the teachers would give her a piece of their mind and she would create no problems for me in this practicum as her husband had done in the earlier practicum given that this time I had completed my practicum in Society and environment and had a positive experience with many teachers at Kent street school .

While Kent street Senior High School Prepared its report on the day which was the last day of my practicum 23rd of September 2005 and got my initials, signature and approval Mrs. Dixon’s report is dated 21st of October 2005. I did not see the report until the 22nd of October 2005 and did not even know that I had failed the practicum according to the supervisor since the report was not signed or seen by me which it had to be an the 23rd of September 2005.

Doesn’t it not come as a surprise as to why would or rather why should a supervisor prepare a report 28days after a prac is over when university guidelines say that results ought to be declared within a maximum of 2 weeks since the conclusion of an event or submission of an assignment?

In fact I received the supervisor Mrs. Dixon’s reports only a month after the conclusion of the prac while the school report which indicated a pass was signed by me on the very last day of the prac 23rd of September. Thought the school report was not received by the university due to postal delays and school holidays Mrs. Dixon’s report should have been disclosed to me first since she worked at the Department of Education at Curtin and did not have to use postal services or the excuse of school holidays to make know her intentions of failing an international student a second time.

Also if you read the supervisor’s written feedback a lot of it is largely negative highlighting only my negative points in teaching, which is a classic example of selective perception. She displays symptoms of excessive fault finding syndrome counting the no of negatives (Don’t, never, do not, cant) in the report which is in sharp contract to the positives you will see in other supervisors reports from Curtin and Edith Cowan University. The final report prepared by Kent Street and Mrs. Dixon is surprisingly and strikingly dichotomous which is really absurd given the fact that the supervisor only observed two classes while the teachers in the school observe nearly 35 lessons over a period of four weeks. They however gave me written feedback for just a few lessons seen in the first week and gave me no written feedback for lessons in the third and fourth week when I had improved considerably in teaching.

All said and done given that I had been passed by Kent Street School and failed by Curtin Supervisor Mrs. Dixon in the absence of the at risk procedure the next best safe alternative to ensure a success would be to allot me a supplementary practicum at the same school with a different supervisor as written in the Edu 543 Hand book. Please see attached photocopies of the same. Giving me a supplementary at the same school (Kent Street) would have made matters a lot easier since I had to only acquire the approval of a new supervisor as the school was already convinced of my teaching abilities. Sending me on a supplementary to a totally new teaching environment (St Stephens) is totally destroying and demolishing all my hard work and effort put into my earlier teaching practicum at Kent Street and amounts to starting all over again from scratch. It is back to square one since I now have a totally new school and new supervisor to deal with. By mindlessly sending me to a totally new school to complete a supplementary Prac Curtin has not considered the physical; and psychological strain this would cause me as a student.

Interestingly the new supervisor Dr John Happs who was evidently not related to the Dixon’s in any way seemed quite happy with my performance as seen in his report. Quite contrary to Mrs. Dixon’s pessimistic five page report after observing my first lesson Dr Happs one page brief report concluded with the sentence “Well Done”. Probably Dr. Happs was listening and observing what I was doing in class instead of mindlessly writing page after page, which seemed to be quite an obsession with Mrs. Dixon.

Fate however had different plans for me. This time paradoxically the school was not happy with my performance and asked that my practicum be terminated. The reasons stated were quite different to the reasons given by the supervisor Mrs. Dixon in the earlier prac. For example St Stephens School expressed a concern that I was reluctant to listen to advice while Kent Street School had stated that listening and acting upon advice had been one of my major strengths. The main reasons sited by Mrs. Dixon were talking over the top of students

And incompetence in planning while St Stephens mentions no such reasons in its report. St Stephens School was concerned over the excessive kind of musical repertoire used by me in teaching while Kent Street or Mrs. Dixon make no such kind of allegations. It would be good in this case to illustrate the analogy of a doctor who being skilled to tackle a certain variety of common illnesses and ailments in a certain country having problems in settling down in a foreign country where he is faced with a complete new assortment of illnesses and cultures. In other words having done two earlier pracs in a public/state school system I now had to deal with a totally new set of problems and difficulties in adjusting to teaching in a private school system where problems would arise more on account of interference by parents and other staff members not involved directly in my practicum rather than in actual classroom teaching which is in striking contrast to my earlier situation of teaching in public schools.

Since the school terminated my practicum I was terminated from the course. This time however I was not given an opportunity by the university to express my concerns and was not given a hearing despite having written feedback from staff members in St Stephen’s school with regard to teaching in that school.

It was with great great difficulty that I managed to convince the staff at Edith Cowan University to enroll me into their education course after having such a disastrous run at Curtin in regard to school practicum.

After reading the feedback reports of Edith Cowan University supervisors and the report by Dr John Happs the Curtin Supervisor it can be easily gathered that the allegations made by Mrs. Dixon are rather unfounded and baseless given the fact that no teacher in Kent Street school was upset by my practicum performance. Even on grounds of rationality the report prepared by Mrs. Dixon cannot be regarded at face value giving her close relationship with the first supervisor Mr. Robert Dixon.

I am not so sure about Curtin, but Edith Cowan university has a strict policy of not sending any of its students on pracs to schools where the student have studied before or where their friends and close or distant relative work in order to ensure impartiality and to avoid favoritisms. Very scrupulous checks are carried out to ensure this. They also do not send supervisors who are closely related to observe the same student as this creates suspicions of having collusion.

By sending supervisors who are closely related to observe two of my consecutive pracs Curtin has actually made a mockery of the entire practicum exercise since the possibility of collusion between the supervisors cannot be ruled out.

Hence my complaint centres on the following main areas.

1. Sending supervisors who were related to each other (Husband and wife) and consequently not giving the general public or me as a student an impression of fairness and impartiality. That supervisors and schools have a conflict with regard to student evaluation is an exception rather than a rule. This is an example of THE LADY MACBETH MODEL OF SUPERVISION.

2. The supervisors’ vicious and audacious attempt at influencing and Informing the school that I was undergoing a repeat prac, which is unjustifiable and unethical since the schoolteachers had no knowledge of my first prac. It symbolizes gross manipulation of authority.

3. The supervisor Mrs. Dixon writing her final prac report a month after the completion of the prac, which does not allow the application of at risk procedure.

4. The university not applying the AT risk procedure, which is clearly stated In the Field experience booklet under which the university has to send a new supervisor in case the earlier supervisor is unhappy and the school is happy with the student.

5.Alloting a supplementary at a totally different school when the Field Experience handbook EDU 543 clearly states that a supplementary at a different school is awarded when both the school and the supervisor administer failing grades to the student. In my situation I received a falling mark from the school and the supervisor in my first prac at Wanneroo Senior High School. However during my Kent street school experience I received a failing report from only the supervisor and a pass report from the school. Thus technically I am allowed to complete a supplementary at the same school, which was not done. Instead I was sent to a new private school which actually only complicated and made matters worse.

6.Not giving me an opportunity to clarify and discuss certain issues raised by my third prac school St Stephen’s and my subsequent termination, which could have been avoided.

Department of Education Student Financial Assistance Can Help

The internet continues to prove itself to be one of the most powerful and versatile resources that individuals can use. The search for money for education is no exception to this. The US Department of Education student financial assistance pages are an excellent example of this. You can access the Department of Education’s page and begin planning your educational career now.

There are a number of significant benefits available to those that visit the US Department of Education student financial assistance pages. Among them is concise information about the federal aid that is available. This information will provide you with a basic understanding that prepares you to approach education funding. The US Department of Education student financial assistance goes well beyond the beginning of securing funding though. It provides information that will be useful for managing your education while in school and managing any remaining debt that you may have when you graduate. The result is a comprehensive resource for your entire educational career.

The fact is that no single site can supply you with all the information that may be useful to you. The US Department of Education’s site provides links to other trusted sites to compliment the resources that it does have. In this way the pages work to provide you with more complete information about the topics that you need to know about. The information is not limited to generalities though. If you are ready to get to the details there is a seamless progression to that on the site.

On the US Department of Education student financial assistance pages you can find links that take you directly to the applications that you need to complete to secure financial aid. It removes the questions of what is next. If you need to apply for aid then you can click the apply for aid link and follow the step-by-step. It really is that simple. You do not need to pay for the information. The US Department of Education student financial assistance pages are free to access and the FAFSA is free to complete and submit. You can literally have an estimate of what you will receive in minutes.

It even provides resources that allow you to search for scholarships that are not government-based. All of this is designed to help you get the money that you need for the education that you want. If you are ready to begin your search into the world of money for education you may want to begin with the US Department of Education’s website. The site offers information for students and financial aid professionals. If you work to help other secure financial the site may prove to be an invaluable resource for you as well.

Filing for financial aid as soon as possible is important. It can help you to secure as much funding as possible in some cases. It can also provide you with additional time to make corrections and seek other funding if necessary. From questions to the application, it is all awaiting you at the US Department of Education website now.

Career in Corporate Training and Education Management Program

The business world has become more competitive. With the advancement of technologies new tools have emerged. Consequently in order to survive in the market employees must be well trained to work on these tools. Today, every organization is making sure that all its employees perform well to the best of their abilities. Many organizations whether big or small have started focusing on corporate training programs. In fact, the need for corporate training is increasing at most companies due to the fast pace of business today.

Importance of Corporate Training

A well-conceived training program can actually help business succeed. Any corporate training program structured with the company’s strategy and objectives in mind has a high prospect of improving productivity. An effective corporate training is very essential as it often help employees learn how to deliver a sales pitch and know more about the inner workings of the company. In recent times few researches have also shown that firms that have seriously planned their corporate training process are more successful than those that do not.

However, deciding the kind of training that can benefit to an organization is far from a simple process. It is not always easy to decide the training process, because of financial and time constraints. The need or type of training must be a considered keeping the current and the future needs of the company in mind. Many business owners want to be successful, but because they are not well trained to provide training generally do not engage in training designs which may help them improve their business. Addressing to meet this requirement a career in corporate training has gained immense popularity in recent years.

Why to choose?

Working as a corporate trainer for a company can help you boost your career. Many big companies having new information or technology want their employees to learn about the new technology. Thus many of them hire corporate trainers to make sure that the proper flow of information and education takes place. If you are a corporate trainer for a company, it means that your job will be to go to each of the branches of the company and be an educator.

As a corporate trainer for a company, there are many things you might be teaching to employees. There can be a situation where you may be holding new employee seminars to teach the new employees the way that the company operates. Moreover, you may even provide management training. In addition, this career also offer you an opportunity to train employees on new policies regarding actions they might take in the work place, or on new situations that they might encounter.

Apart from this, there are many career options in the field of corporate training and education management programs. You can play the role of corporate facilitator, the person who spends time with the students. They are the one delivering the lectures everyday. Then you can also be a freelance developer who is in-charge of developing the complete course module relating to a specific topic.

Selecting Online Corporate Education Schools

Definitely choosing a career in corporate training can be lucrative a lucrative option, but it also depends upon your corporate education and school you choose to obtain a corporate training degree. Today there are many online corporate education schools that offer distance learning program in corporate training. However, be sure to attain a degree from those colleges that ensure to provide you experienced faculty, quality programs and unparalleled resources working together to meet critical business challenges. Look for a university that can assign you personal advisor(s) who will be there to answer your questions and take care of administrative details from enrollment through graduation.

Nevertheless, the biggest area of corporate education must help you enhance your skill and be a successful corporate trainer. You want to be sure that when you train people or employees they listen to you, they understand what you are saying, and ultimately benefit from your discussion.

Finding an Education Manager Job

There are certain career fields which are quite common and they are chosen by almost 90 percent of the students. But there are certain career paths which might not be very popular or common. There are people who do not like to choose the common jobs. They want to do something different and unique.

If you are in favor of this kind of jobs then you can surely try for them. There are various job sites which offer different kinds of jobs to efficient people. There are people who love to pursue a career which has something to do with education.

Education is one of the most important things present in any culture as well as community. Each and every person tries their best to educate themselves as well as their children in the best possible way.

Education manager job is one of the positions which can help you keep in touch with education and deal with the education system. Education manager employment is quite common in colleges and universities. The position of edification manager is a usually a volunteer position. Most of the people are self employed.

These people usually coordinate activities that are related to education. You must always remember that the job of an education manager is not that easy. There are lots of duties and responsibilities that an education manager needs to take. They also need to provide proper orientation to the new members.
If you want to join an education manager job then you must be ready for hard work.

You must also have proper determination to perform the work in the best possible way and help students so that they can choose proper career and take the right path in education.

First of all the manager needs to maintain their website which has all the education resource. They must always ensure that the information provided on the website is proper and up to date.

If you are in the education management jobs then you must always be ready to answer the questions related to education. You also need to make sure that you answer all the questions in time. An edification manager also needs to write articles related to education related topics.

An manager job demands a lot of activities from the manager. The manager needs to have proper contact with the education community present in the locality. They also need to arrange for seminars at certain time intervals for the students. If you are interested in education manager job then you must also be well qualified for this job.

First of all you need to complete your college and get a degree and then you must pursue for a higher degree. Other than this, you must also have good knowledge about academics.

To look for the education management job opportunities you can log into the various job sites. These managers are also offered profitable salaries by the firms as well as colleges and universities. Education manager employment is on the rise.

An Inside Look at the Special Education Profession

Special education professionals work to promote students’ overall behavioral, social and academic growth. Special education professionals aide students in developing socially appropriate behavior within their family, school and community. Teachers of special education help students become more confident in their social interactions. Special education professionals administer activities that build students’ life skills.

What Does the Job Entail?

Are you interested in helping others? Can you handle and care for people who learn differently and have other behavioral problems? Do you want to make a difference in a young child’s life? If you answered “yes” to any of these questions, then you might consider a career in special education. Below is a breakdown of the short and long-term responsibilities of a special education teacher.

First and foremost, special education teachers focus on the development and academic needs of children with disabilities. They encourage learning in disabled students by implementing educational modules and behavioral techniques. Special education teachers work alone or with general education teachers to individualize lessons, develop problem-solving techniques and integrate children into group projects with other students. Furthermore, special education teachers are responsible for ensuring that the needs of disabled children are met during assessment periods.

Did you know that special education teachers work with a team of professionals, qualified staff and family in order to fulfill their job requirements? It is true. In fact, special education teachers work in conjunction with these entities to create an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for each student. An IEP is designed in collaboration with a child’s parents, school principal, social worker, speech pathologist and general education teacher to ensure effective implementation. An IEP targets a student’s needs and growth areas for maximum response. The specialized goals set by the IEP are woven throughout all aspects of a child’s daily activities. Teachers of special education must monitor a child’s setbacks and progress and report back to parents and administrators. Planned goals and tasks are outlined for family members to refer to while a student is at home as well.

The types of disabilities a special education teacher might encounter are difficult to predict. For one, the qualifications for special education services vary greatly from mild disabilities to extreme cases of mental retardation or autism. Types of disabilities include, but are not limited to, the following: speech impairments, hearing disabilities, emotional disturbances, orthopedic impairments, brain trauma cases, blindness, deafness and learning disabilities.

Do You Exhibit These Qualities?

Now that you have an idea of the job’s demands, let’s see if you have the right qualities to be a special education teacher.

Recognize the symptoms and needs of special needs students

Patience

Ability to work with one or more parties to achieve short-term and long-term goals

Strong communication skills

Ability to motivate others

Ability to multi-task

Knowledge of the most recent education modules, medical research and behavioral practices
Creativity

Knowledge of the latest medical technology relevant to special education

Taking the Next Step toward a New Career

Once you have decided to enter the field of special education, you will need to follow several steps. Due to the specialization of the field, special education teachers in all 50 states must receive licensure before employment. Licensures are approved by each state’s board of education, and the requirements for certification differ between states. Nevertheless, the growing shortage of special education teachers has led institutions of higher education to offer more special education degree and certification programs. In fact, special education degrees are offered at the bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral levels throughout the nation. Not to mention, the booming field of distance learning has made certification more accessible from any location in the United States.

In many cases, hopeful special education professionals do not meet the requirements of special education licensure due to their prior completion of degree programs outside of the field of education. Therefore, several states have begun to offer alternate forms of certification. The hope of these programs is to attract new special education professionals and fill the growing need for teachers. The chance to positively impact the lives of special needs children is one of the driving motivations and benefits of entering this field.

After several years, some special education teachers look for new opportunities within their field. In the most common situations, special education professionals transfer to administrative or supervisory positions. Others, after receiving a higher degree, become college professors and educate new students in the field of special education. Experienced teachers of special needs students have also moved up to serve as mentors to incoming special education teachers.

As for the future of special education and employment, there are many changes on the horizon. Most significantly, the job market in special education, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is projected to “increase faster than the average of all occupations by 2014.” Due to the new emphasis on education and training in legislature, special education professionals will become even more valued.

Can I Make a Living as a Special Education Teacher?

As mentioned previously, the special education job market is on the rise. In 2004, the BLS reported 441,000 employed special education teachers in the nation. While only 6 percent worked within private schools, over 90 percent were employed by public schools or districts. In rare cases, special education professionals were involved in home or hospital care.

Stress Education And Reservation

Stress at individual and social levels; distorts our cognition, affect and conation (perception, feelings and actions); and leads to amongst many other evils; deterioration of international, national and local education policy and its implementation. The present day non-holistic (sectarian, prejudiced, vindictive, malicious, mercenary, exploitative and malevolent) education (formal, curricular, co curricular, extracurricular and informal) is a major stressor that though aids in petty pursuits; opposes our blossoming and further perpetuates stress and ill effects in the individual and social life. Let us review; the present perspective, policy and practice of education; as seen around.

Even though education is defined in various ways; and often inadequately or incompletely; there has been a general agreement on the fact that education is basically a process of blossoming of an individual and the society. Hence it included three domains, which are as follows.

The first domain is called AFFECTIVE DOMAIN. This means the state of mind. In simple words affective domain relates to how we feel. Thus when our mind is full of alertness, attention, enthusiasm, buoyancy, affection, concern, joy, tolerance, self esteem, mutual respect, mutual trust, commitment, dedication, love, romance, confidence, positive and victorious spirit, we would call it healthy affective domain. In addition; the zeal and concentration needed; in the pursuit of excellence in intellectual field, tenacity and endurance required; in skillful activities and patience and commitment essential; for internally satisfying and socially beneficial (conscientious) actions constitute affective domain. The purpose of education is to nurture this domain by designing suitable curricula and syllabi.

The second domain of education is called PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN. This implies ability to appreciate skills and ability to perform physical and mental skills, with speed, accuracy, elegance, ease of performance etc. This may involve appreciation and performance of skills such as surgery, playing a musical instrument, playing basket ball or doing carpentry! The purpose of education is to nurture this domain through not only designing suitable curricula, syllabi but also by providing sufficient practical and demonstration classes; with all the necessary equipments.

The third domain is called COGNITIVE DOMAIN. Cognitive domain incorporates accurate perspective, contemplation, correct perception understanding, conceptualization, analysis and recall of fact and problems, ability to evaluate, synthesize, correlate and make decisions, appropriate policies, plans and expertise in the management, administration, etc.

It is clear that all these domains have three components each viz. Cognition [Perception], affect [Feelings] and conation [Response].

Thus cognitive domain would have intellectual perception, clarity and intellectual expression, affective domain would include feeling, motivation and response in emotional sphere such as poetry; and psychomotor domain would include grasp and internalization of a particular skill, confidence to perform it and actually performing it.

Let us now see, how in spite of these goals; how it has come to be conceived as a process of achieving political, economic, scientific and technological supremacy and thus deteriorated to the present stage; where all the three domains are defective; apart from lacking in the spiritual and productive domains. In short; let us see how it has become a major stressor.

For this; a brief consideration of the traditional education system in India would prove useful.

Traditional Education System in India in general; ensured that:
a] Careers were not selected on the basis of monetary gains,
b] Careers were not selected arbitrarily on the basis of idiosyncrasies and whims,
c] Some lucrative careers could not be sought after; in preference to the others,
d] All careers ensured income and production from early age,
e] All careers ensured that the society was benefited,
f] All careers ensured security to all the social groups,
g] All the careers ensured intimacy and closeness between young and old in the families.
h] All careers ensured ethical education and passage of experience and wisdom; from generation to generation.

These were merits. But it is also true that, the traditional system was apparently marked by deprivation of scholastic education on mass scale, apparently unjustifiable availability of education of jobs based on caste, deficient infrastructure for collective scientific and technological efforts, and an element of arbitrary imposition of hierarchy.

The traditional education system has attained the present status of being a major stressor as a result of several stressful factors including the onslaught of the tempting and impressive individualistic doctrines. Thus the transition from traditional system to the present one (whether due to British, American or any other influence, but basically due to individualistic pursuits); has become a major stressor tearing apart the cohesive social fabric of India by failing to preserve and nurture the merits and discard and dispose off the demerits.

As the education shifted from homes, home industries and farms to; nurseries, K.G. schools, schools, colleges, universities, corporate industries, research institutions etc. the transition became viciously poisonous.

Cognition suffered because of:
a] Huge number of students, in a single class making following three things almost impossible. These things are i] individual attention ii] dialogue iii] discussions,
b] Lack of adequate salary, accountability, incentive and economic security to the teachers taking away the initiative of nurturing cognitive domain
c] Increase in alienation with respect to student’s background and aptitude
d] Lack of adequate incentive to the students in the form of creativity, production and earning, service to the family and service to the nation, takes away the motivation required for building up cognitive domain
e] Lack of conviction essential in the growth of cognitive domain in the teachers and students because of outdated practical and demonstration classes, lack of interdisciplinary dialogue and in general the irrelevance of education to the realities of day to day life in as much as almost predictable consecutive unemployment at the end! The lack of conviction could be partly due to lack of participation by teachers in decision-making, policy making, development of curricula, syllabi etc.
f] Emphasis on recall and hence rote learning thereby denying free inquiry, reading, questioning etc. thereby directly thwarting the cognitive domain
g]] Too many examinations; with irrelevant parameters or criteria of evaluation [besides being unfair in many instances] leading to misguided and in most cases counterproductive efforts thus adversely affecting the cognitive domain
h] Competitions where the manipulative skills, callousness, selfishness are given more respect, destroy the enthusiasm of growing in cognitive domain
i] Information explosion affecting cognitive domain by either causing enormous and unnecessary burden on memory or inferiority complex
j] Pressure of interviews causing constant tension and sense of inadequacy, right from the tender age,
k] Protracted hours of homework in schools denying the students their legitimate right to enjoy their childhood and make them physically, mentally and intellectually unfit to grow in cognitive domain
l] Irrelevant and unnecessary information loading in lectures in the form of monologue, leading to suppression of the spontaneity, originality, interest and enthusiasm so much required in cognitive development amongst the students,

Affective domain suffered due to,
A] Isolation of the children from their parents and their domestic environment at an early age [Making the parents also equally sad]
B] Lack of warm bonds due to huge number,
C] Cut throat individualistic and petty competition,
D] Inadequate facilities of sports, trekking, educational tours, recreation and physical development etc
E] Alienation from one’s social environment and culture

Psychomotor domain suffered due to
A] Almost total lack of opportunities to actually participate in skillful activities such as drawing, painting, sewing, sculpturing, carpentry, knitting, weaving, music, agriculture, horticulture, other handicrafts, various sports, performing arts etc.

It is important to realize that promotion of psychomotor domain is evident but in its caricature form. It has no concrete economic realistic basis. The activities have no economic incentive and no productive element.

Apart from the defects in the three domains; the other two domains viz. spiritual and productive; have not TOTALLY ABSENT in the education.

The spiritual domain that imparts universal perspective and globally beneficial outlook; incorporates inner blossoming of an individual through introspection, heart to heart communication (not merely discussion and arguments), mutual understanding and blossoming of the teachers and students together; through one of the most universal practices; viz. NAMASMARAN. Thus the spiritual domain is a key to conquer lust, whims, fancies, pride, arrogance, callousness, contempt, ungratefulness, prejudices, jealousy, hatred, meanness, meekness, beggary, cheating, stealing, treachery and so on; is never made available to the teachers, students and the others; associated with education.

The present education system in India lacks the other important domain viz. the productive domain that empowers the people concerned with education. This prevents a huge section of society such as teachers, students, clerks, servants, sweepers and many others such as education inspectors, from being creative and productive. In addition it causes colossal loss of space, electricity, construction cost and so on. In addition because of the typical emphasis on rote learning it leads to phenomenal waste of “educational material” such as paper, bags, pencils, ball pens etc.

It has to be appreciated that billions of rupees are spent on unproductive or rather counterproductive exercise of construction, decoration and maintenance of schools and colleges, electricity, and so called educational material, payment of millions of teachers and other staff members engaged, and exams conducted to test the “capacity and merit of rote learning”. This way we weaken the national economy, jeopardize the developmental activities.

It also causes economic loss to everyone involved in education; while suppressing and starving their all three domains nurtured in productive activity. This is a single most important cause of
1] Reduction in the dignity of labor amongst those who continue to learn, as well as reduction in the income of the concerned families and the nation
2] Lack of education, lack of employment and starvation or criminalization amongst those who are forced to drop out because the poor villagers’ children normally contribute to the earning of the family.
3] Inhuman suffering of those millions of students dropouts, who somehow manage to get into the hell of cheap child labor for subsistence; due to economic reasons.

In short, present day education system harnesses arrogance and diffidence; amongst those who continue to learn. But their spiritual, cognitive, psychomotor, affective and productive domains are defective. Their spiritual blossoming, self empowerment, creative wisdom, intellectual competence, productive skills, self sufficiency and even physical health are deficient. Thus we have increasing number of unproductive criminals and mental wrecks or highly competitive efficient maniacs pursuing petty goals at the cost of others!

For those who are unable to continue the education; the abyss of being child labor, stealing, delinquency, criminals, perverts, beggars is wide open!

The piecemeal approach or facilitation of petty pursuits (under the guise of development and progress) is not only useless but are in fact counterproductive! It leads to cancerous spread of industries with uncontrolled production of unnecessary utilities and their maddening marketing. These industries consume energy, fuel and add to undisposable waste and pollution. This sickening and stressful atmosphere nurtured by the present education; promotes the growth of terrorism on the one hand; and pretends to act against it (in a counterproductive way) on the other!

Mainstream Education System and the courses and careers in it; revolve around and serve the grossly petty and superficial considerations, motivations and interests and this state of affairs; is strongly protected and strengthened by the elements with similar interests! Hence the present laws, rules and regulations also promote present education and its ill effects.

Some institutions and individuals, for whom we have great respect, are involved in the holistic approach to education (mainstream, formal, informal, curricular, co curricular, extracurricular as well as education of physically and mentally challenged children). But these efforts are too feeble to make a difference to our life.

While piecemeal approaches are failing; there is no adequate awareness and promotion of holistic education, which leaves the vicious cycle of stress distorting education and distorted education creating, aggravating and spreading the stress; to continue unabashedly and unabated.

Hence; the ill effects of stress on present education and vice versa; can be eradicated if we understand and propagate the defects in present education and promote holistic education as an international solution. It has to be appreciated that no statesman, no political leader, no policy maker and no administrator can bring about change in an existing system (in democratic set up); unless, we evolve a consensus about the changes in the majority of people; whose cooperation is very vital.

In short; the policy of holistic education; demands that every school, college, university etc must become the center of production and service, self sufficient and must aid in self sufficiency and blossoming of everyone involved in education and also of the nation.

The students, teachers and others associated with education; must blossom as independent and empowered individuals; spiritually, intellectually, mentally, instinctually, physically and economically.

In practice; everyday; approximately
20 % of the time must be spent in production, service etc.
20 % of the time must be spent in physical activities
20 % of the time must be spent in personality (conceptual and spiritual) development and
20 % of the time must be spent in entertainment
20 % of the time must be spent on cognitive domain

20 % of the time must be spent in production, service etc.

1. The productive domain should be an essential ingredient of education System, but no particular job should be enforced. The teachers and others should participate in the productive domain. Production and service can involve community projects such plantation of medicinal herbs, rearing of cows, home flower gardening, production of chalk sticks, carpentry, pottery, cleanliness, crafts, skills, arts and their sale according to the situations.. Working physically in different ways and earning is not a burden. It is an opportunity to grow from within. It is an opportunity to develop our self esteem. It is an opportunity to become self sufficient.

2. This leads to self sufficiency in schools. They do not have to depend on heavy fees or federal grants or donations and this way they become accessible to all; rendering the reservations redundant!

3. Through productive domain the hypokinetic stress, emotional stress of being dependent and intellectual stress of excessive memorizing is averted.

4. Due to productive domain, the dropping out due to lack of earning (as is common in case of millions of students in many parts of world) and then turning into helpless, vulnerable and cheap child labor would come down.
5. Being empowered, the students would not go through the stress of unemployment and turn into helpless, frustrated mental wrecks or criminals.

6. The emphasis on productive domain (and hence psychomotor and practical aspects) would bring down the necessity and also the capability and possibility to “copy” and associated crimes and corruption in procedures of examinations, certification, providing grants and so on!

The caste based or any other kind of reservation for education, jobs and promotions; responsible for social divide and strife; in many parts of the world; (especially India) can be rendered redundant and thus; peacefully and advantageously done away with, by consensus!

Most importantly; we have to introduce and incorporate examinations, which examine the actual skill, capacity or performance of the student, rather than his/her ability of repeating or reproducing things and/or copying.

20 % of the time must be spent in physical activities

Physical activities can include pranayama, sports, exercise, trekking, hiking, a variety of physical fitness training programs and methods to avoid monotony and improve efficacy. A variety of sports prevalent in every other parts of the world can make the programs more interesting, entertaining thereby promoting global unity.

20 % of the time must be spent in personality (conceptual and spiritual) development and

Personality development includes affective domain, spiritual domain and embodies broadening of perspective through various means such as; NAMASMARAN, by hearting and chanting prayers, poems and songs from different languages and countries thereby promoting global unity, invited guest lectures, seminars, discussions on holistic health, educational tours and visits to places where the student gets exposed to rapid developments in the society such as laboratories, airports, government offices, share market, farms etc.

20 % of the time must be spent in entertainment

Entertainment that enriches the soul; not only should include playing musical instruments, dance, painting, mimicry, singing, story telling, drama, movie etc. but everything that nurtures the affective domain and spiritual domain as well.

20 % of the time must be spent on cognitive domain

Development of cognitive domain can include teaching of languages, history, geography, mathematics etc with utmost emphasis on interpretation and relevance in day to day life. Thus typical irrelevant questions in the examination of history, languages, mathematics; should be totally done away with. The subject such as economics, psychology, civics, philosophy, logic, sociology etc must include field work and made relevant to the present society.

We must encourage maximum and daily person to person interaction and dialogue amongst the teachers and students; so that analytical, synthetic, contemplative, decision making, trouble shooting and problem solving capacities are developed optimally.

Let us realize the fact that the vicious cycle of stress distorting education and distorted education causing and multiplying stress e.g. in the form of RESERVATION POLICY and its ILL EFFECTS; in individual and social life; can NOT be managed effectively unless and until; a situation where millions are “imprisoned” in unproductive work and millions are forced into unemployment and inhuman cheap child labor; is eradicated through holistic education policy and its implementation; at international, national and local levels; through the laws, government rules and public awareness, consensus and participation.

The details of practical steps can be developed by interactions amongst the people active in the field of education all over the world. But we all need;

1, Perspective and conviction of Global Unity and global welfare
2. Readiness to accept and introduce physiological insights and principles in the holistic education
3. Readiness and openness to have dialogue with experts in other fields
4. Participation from the society and governments and the media including internet websites, so that holistic education activists all over the world can have a meaningful dialogue and share views, work and experiences and may be, inspire others!
5. Administrative proficiency and due care and concern for the physical capacities of the children (normal as well as the physically and mentally challenged) and should not be painful and troublesome.
7. The opportunities for psychomotor activities and productive activities; without impositions.
8. Every kind of open mindedness and tolerance amongst teachers and students; so that better international relations can be realized.

The physical, instinctual, emotional, intellectual, spiritual and economic empowerment and blossoming; of all those involved in holistic education is integral to Total Stress Management (the core of which is NAMASMARAN); i.e. individual and global blossoming; culminating into global unity, harmony and justice.

Can NAMASMARAN be useful in this? To find out that; we must find out what is NAMASMARAN!

Namasmaran usually embodies; remembering the name of God, Guru, great souls; such as prophets and whatever is considered as holy e.g. planets and stars. It is remembered silently, loudly, along with music, dance, along with breathing, in group or alone. Further, NAMASMARAN is either counted by some means such as fingers, rosary (called SMARANI or JAPAMALA), or electronic counter; or practiced without counting. The traditions vary from region to region and from religion to religion.

However the universal principle underlying
NAMASMARAN is to reorient our physiological and social being; with our true self and establish and strengthen the bond between; our physiological and social being; with our true self; and finally reunification or merger with our true self!

Since individual consciousness is the culmination of every activity in life; and NAMASMARAN the pinnacle of or culmination of individual consciousness; NAMASMARAN is actually opening the final common pathway to objective or cosmic consciousness; so that individual consciousness in every possible activity gets funneled into or unified with Him!

Thus NAMASMARAN is in fact the YOGA of YOGA in the sense that it is the culmination of consciousness associated with every possible procedure and technique in the yoga that we are familiar with. It is the
YOGA of YOGA because it is the culmination of consciousness associated with all the activities in the universe, which it encompasses as well! It is YOGA of YOGA because everybody in the world irrespective of his/her tradition and the beliefs; would eventually, ultimately and naturally reach it; in the process of liberation. Even so called non believers also would not “miss” the “benefit of NAMASMARAN as they may remember true self through one symbol or another”!

Immortalizing Values Through Education for Sustainable Development

Education is the primary agent of transformation towards sustainable development, increasing people’s capacities to transform their visions for society into reality. Education not only provides scientific and technical skills, it also provides the motivation, and social support for pursuing and applying them. For this reason, society must be deeply concerned that much of current education falls far short of what is required. When we say this, it reflects the very necessities across the cultures that allow everyone become responsible towards quality enhancement.

Improving the quality and revelation of education and reorienting its goals to recognize the importance of sustainable development must be among society’s highest priorities. It is not that we talk only about environment but also about every component of life.

We therefore need to clarify the concept of education for sustainable development. It was a major challenge for educators during the last decade. The meanings of sustainable development in educational set ups, the appropriate balance of peace, human rights, citizenship, social equity, ecological and development themes in already overloaded curricula, and ways of integrating the humanities, the social sciences and the arts into what had up-to-now been seen and practiced as a branch of science education.

Some argued that educating for sustainable development ran the risk of programming while others wondered whether asking schools to take a lead in the transition to sustainable development was asking too much of teachers.

These debates were compounded by the desire of many, predominantly environmental, NGOs to contribute to educational planning without the requisite understanding of how education systems work, how educational change and innovation takes place, and of relevant curriculum development, professional development and instructive values. Not realizing that effective educational change takes time, others were critical of governments for not acting more quickly.

Consequently, many international, regional and national initiatives have contributed to an expanded and refined understanding of the meaning of education for sustainable development. For example, Education International, the major umbrella group of teachers’ unions and associations in the world, has issued a declaration and action plan to promote sustainable development through education.

A common agenda in all of these is the need for an integrated approach through which all communities, government entities, collaborate in developing a shared understanding of and commitment to policies, strategies and programs of education for sustainable development.

Actively promoting the integration of education into sustainable development at local community

In addition, many individual governments have established committees, panels, advisory councils and curriculum development projects to discuss education for sustainable development, develop policy and appropriate support structures, programs and resources, and fund local initiatives.

Indeed, the roots of education for sustainable development are firmly planted in the environmental education efforts of such groups. Along with global education, development education, peace education, citizenship education, human rights education, and multicultural and anti-racist education that have all been significant, environmental education has been particularly significant. In its brief thirty-year history, contemporary environmental education has steadily striven towards goals and outcomes similar and comparable to those inherent in the concept of sustainability.

A New Vision for Education

These many initiatives illustrate that the international community now strongly believes that we need to foster – through education – the values, behavior and lifestyles required for a sustainable future. Education for sustainable development has come to be seen as a process of learning how to make decisions that consider the long-term future of the economy, ecology and social well-being of all communities. Building the capacity for such futures-oriented thinking is a key task of education.

This represents a new vision of education, a vision that helps learners better understand the world in which they live, addressing the complexity and inter-contentedness of problems such as poverty, wasteful consumption, environmental degradation, urban decay, population growth, gender inequality, health, conflict and the violation of human rights that threaten our future. This vision of education emphasizes a holistic, interdisciplinary approach to developing the knowledge and skills needed for a sustainable future as well as changes in values, behavior, and lifestyles. This requires us to reorient education systems, policies and practices in order to empower everyone, young and old, to make decisions and act in culturally appropriate and locally relevant ways to redress the problems that threaten our common future. We therefore need to think globally and act locally. In this way, people of all ages can become empowered to develop and evaluate alternative visions of a sustainable future and to fulfill these visions through working creatively with others.

Seeking sustainable development through education requires educators to:

• Place an ethic for living sustainable, based upon principles of social justice, democracy, peace and ecological integrity, at the center of society’s concerns.
• Encourage a meeting of disciplines, a linking of knowledge and of expertise, to create understandings that are more integrated and contextualized.
• Encourage lifelong learning, starting at the beginning of life and stuck in life – one based on a passion for a radical transformation of the moral character of society.
• Develop to the maximum the potential of all human beings throughout their lives so that they can achieve self-fulfillment and full self-expression with the collective achievement of a viable future.
• Value aesthetics, the creative use of the imagination, an openness to risk and flexibility, and a willingness to explore new options.
• Encourage new alliances between the State and civil society in promoting citizens’ liberation and the practice of democratic principles.
• Mobilize society in an intensive effort so as to eliminate poverty and all forms of violence and injustice.
• Encourage a commitment to the values for peace in such a way as to promote the creation of new lifestyles and living patterns
• Identify and pursue new human projects in the context of local sustainability within an earthly realization and a personal and communal awareness of global responsibility.
• Create realistic hope in which the possibility of change and the real desire for change are accompanied by a rigorous, active participation in change, at the appropriate time, in favor of a sustainable future for all.

These responsibilities emphasize the key role of educators as ambassador of change. There are over 60 million teachers in the world – and each one is a key ambassador for bringing about the changes in lifestyles and systems that we need. But, education is not confined to the classrooms of formal education. As an approach to social learning, education for sustainable development also encompasses the wide range of learning activities in basic and post-basic education, technical and vocational training and tertiary education, and both non-formal and informal learning by both young people and adults within their families and workplaces and in the wider community. This means that all of us have important roles to play as both ‘learners’ and ‘teachers’ in advancing sustainable development.

Key Lessons

Deciding how education should contribute to sustainable development is a major task. In coming to decisions about what approaches to education will be locally relevant and culturally appropriate, countries, educational institutions and their communities may take heed of the following key lessons learnt from discussion and debate about education and sustainable development over the past decade.

• Education for sustainable development must explore the economic, political and social implications of sustainability by encouraging learners to reflect critically on their own areas of the world, to identify non-viable elements in their own lives and to explore the tensions among conflicting aims. Development strategies suited to the particular circumstances of various cultures in the pursuit of shared development goals will be crucial. Educational approaches must take into account the experiences of indigenous cultures and minorities, acknowledging and facilitating their original and significant contributions to the process of sustainable development.

• The movement towards sustainable development depends more on the development of our moral sensitivities than on the growth of our scientific understanding – important as that is. Education for sustainable development cannot be concerned only with disciplines that improve our understanding of nature, despite their undoubted value. Success in the struggle for sustainable development requires an approach to education that strengthens our engagement in support of other values – especially justice and fairness – and the awareness that we share a common destiny with others.

• Ethical values are the principal factor in social consistency and at the same time, the most effective agent of change and transformation. Ultimately, sustainability will depend on changes in behavior and lifestyles, changes which will need to be motivated by a shift in values and rooted in the cultural and moral precepts upon which behavior is based. Without change of this kind, even the most enlightened legislation, the cleanest technology, the most sophisticated research will not succeed in steering society towards the long-term goal of sustainability.

• Changes in lifestyle will need to be accompanied by the development of an ethical awareness, whereby the inhabitants of rich countries discover within their cultures the source of a new and active solidarity, which will make possible to eradicate the widespread poverty that now besets 80% of the world’s population as well as the environmental degradation and other problems linked to it.